IGSD

Institute for Governance & Sustainable Development

Government / NGO Publications

Leap Frogging to Super Efficiency

TERI, IGSD, TERRE, & EESL – 2017

Summary

This paper describes how government, and environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in India are finding synergy and innovative market transformation mechanisms in the pursuit of affordable super-efficient room air conditioners using refrigerants that are less damaging to climate. The synergy is at an early stage of success, but with much more work needed, including communication of lessons learned and advice for implementation in India’s export markets and replication worldwide.

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Examining Patents for Alternatives to Hydrofluorocarbons in India

EEW, NRDC, C2ES, & IGSD – 2016

Summary

Patents and other intellectual property such as know how are a complex issue for policy makers and civil society experts, especially considering the large number of patents involved and the sensitivity and confidentiality around licensing agreements. This paper does not attempt to find a solution to the patent debate. Rather, it examines developing country experiences in dealing with patents during earlier transitions under Montreal Protocol as well as highlights the key issues faced by Indian industry and policy makers.

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ELI’s Environmental Forum: How Can the U.S. Lead in Paris to Achieve a Climate Agreement We Can Live With?

ELI – 2015

Summary
Read Durwood Zaelke’s Debate: “Post-Paris Pivot to Fast Climate Change Mitigation” from ELI’s Environmental Forum: How Can the U.S. Lead in Paris to Achieve a Climate Agreement We Can Live With?

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Patents and the Role of the Multilateral Fund

C2ES & IGSD – 2015

Summary
Parties to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer are considering actions to phase down hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) because of their contributions to climate change. One important issue raised by Article 5 Parties1 is the concern that patents on recently developed low-global warming alternatives could restrict access to or increase the costs of transitioning to these substitutes. This paper looks at how issues related to patents have previously impacted the phase-out of ozone-depleting substances by Article 5 Parties with a focus on the role played by the Protocol’s Multilateral Fund.

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Technological Change in the Production Sector under the Montreal Protocol

C2ES & IGSD – 2015

Summary
With negotiations under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) considering limits on hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) as potent greenhouse gases, this paper examines past transitions during the relatively short, but dynamic history of this international treaty. It focuses on past shifts from chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) to hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) to HFCs, with the goal of identifying lessons that can inform discussions aimed at transitioning from high-global warming potential (high-GWP) HFCs.

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National Legislation on Hydrofluorocarbons: Final draft, open for comments

Duncan Brack – 2015

Summary
This paper spotlights the increasing number and stringency of national regulations, incentives, and voluntary agreements to phase down HFCs worldwide. Regulations and incentives in place as of August 2015 are compared and contrasted and judged for effectiveness in reducing production and consumption of HFCs.

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Amending the Montreal Protocol: Summary of amendment proposals and discussion of key components to phasing down HFCs

NRDC, EEW & IGSD – 2015

Summary
This paper discusses key aspects of proposed amendments for phasing down HFCs under the Montreal Protocol, including the North American proposal, Micronesian proposal, and the European Union discussion paper. It also discusses key features that could be included in a proposal to phase down HFCs under the Montreal Protocol, including control measures, grace periods, financial assistance from the Multilateral Fund, intellectual property rights, and safety. Furthermore, this paper explores the reasons why countries should consider their own amendment proposal. This paper is part of ongoing research on phasing down HFCs and is part of a series of papers already published on the benefits of switching to lower-GWP alternatives, including Cooling India with Less Warming: The Business Case for Phasing Down HFCs in Room and Vehicle Air Conditioners6 and Reducing Stress on India’s Energy Grid: The Power Sector Benefits of Transitioning to Lower Global Warming Potential and Energy Efficient Refrigerants in Room Air Conditioners,7 among others. 

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Reducing Stress on India’s Energy Grid: The Power Sector Benefits of Transitioning to Lower Global Warming Potential and Energy Efficient Refrigerants in Room Air Conditioners

NRDC, EEW & IGSD – 2015

Summary
This interim draft paper explores the energy efficiency and power sector benefits of air conditioning companies in India to “leapfrog” and phase down unsustainable technologies based on chemicals with high GWP and move to a future based on climate-friendly and energy-efficient refrigerants.

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LBNL: Benefits of Leapfrogging to Superefficiency and Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants in Room Air Conditioning

Nihar Shah, Max Wei, Virginie Letschert, & Amol Phadke – 2015

Summary
This paper provides an estimate of the magnitude of such GHG and peak electric load savings potential, for room air conditioning, if the refrigerant transition and energy efficiency improvement policies are implemented either separately or in parallel. We find that implementing HFC refrigerant transition and energy efficiency improvement policies in parallel for room air conditioning, roughly doubles the benefit of either policy implemented separately. While there is some uncertainty associated with emissions and growth projections, moving to efficient room air conditioning (~30% more efficient than current technology) in parallel with lowGWP refrigerants in room air conditioning could avoid upto ~25 billion tonnes of CO2 in 2030, ~33 billion in 2040, and ~40 billion in 2050, i.e. cumulative savings upto 98 billion tonnes of CO2 by 2050. Therefore, superefficient room ACs using low-GWP refrigerants merit serious consideration to maximize peak load reduction and GHG savings.

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Alternatives to High-GWP Hydrofluorocarbons:

IGSD – 2014

Summary
This assessment report aims to give a concise and accessible picture of the current availability of alternative to high-global warming potential (GWP) hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) in their main uses with elaboration of their efficiency, cost-effectiveness, safety, environmental impacts and technical performance, as well as their applicability at high ambient temperatures, with the goal of better informing decision makers about the future of HFCs in a fast-evolving market and regulatory context.

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A Global Response to HFCs through Fair and Effective Ozone and Climate Policies

Chatham House – 2014

Summary
This research paper draws on the discussions at a workshop held at Chatham House in April 2014, outlines the main issues around the question of how best to craft a fair and effective global response to the growth in HFC use. A number of key issues are central to the debate: the principle of equity between developed and developing countries; the availability of alternatives to HFCs; the need for financial support for developing countries; the legal relationship between the climate and ozone regimes; and, underlying all these, the need for political will to resolve these challenges.

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Next-Generation Refrigerants for Energy Efficiency and Climate Protection

Terre Policy Center & IGSD – 2014

Summary
Workshop held in Pune brought together India’s business, government, air conditioning trade association, and civil society leaders to share the latest information on ozone-safe, low-GWP, energy-efficient Room Air Conditioning (RAC) and Mobile Air Conditioning (MAC).

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Mobile Air Conditioning and Room Air Conditioning Strategy to Reduce Climate Forcing from Hydrofluorocarbons

UNEP, IGSD & Terre Policy Center – 2014

Summary
Strategy Paper on HFC Emission Reduction Options – SSFA Milestone

Unpacking the Problem

Y. Xu and D. Zaelke – 2013

Summary
Simultaneous efforts to tackle carbon dioxide and short-lived climate pollutants provide the best chance of avoiding dangerous climate change.

Compliance Strategies to Deliver Climate Benefits

INECE – 2013

Summary
Compliance Strategies to Deliver Climate Benefits: The best tools, case examples, and innovations for practitioners

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Enforcement Strategies for Combating the Illegal Trade in HCFCs and Methyl Bromide

UNEP & INECE – 2013

Summary
Highlights the importance of national enforcement against illegal trade in ensuring reductions in the emission of chemicals that damage both the ozone layer and the global climate system.

A Climate Success Story to Build On

M. Molina and D. Zaelke – 2012

Summary
The Montreal Protocol article appeared in the OzoneAction Montreal Protocol 25th Anniversary Special Issue

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UNEP’s “Our Planet: Powering Climate Solutions”

UNEP – 2011

Summary
TheThe magazine of the United Nations Environment Programme -A.R.Ravishankara, Mario Molina and Durwood Zaelke: At a crossroads
Simply protecting and managing naturally regenerating trees has increased food production and reduced conflict-
Romina Picolotti: An equitable arrangement

The Montreal protocol should regulate production and use of HFCs-
Veerabhadran Ramanathan and Nithya Ramaathan: An unprecedented opportunity


The Need for Speed

IGSD – February 2013

Summary
Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are responsible for 55 to 60% of radiative forcing. Fast and aggressive CO2 mitigation is essential to combat the resulting climate change. But this is not enough. CO2 mitigation must be combined with fast and aggressive mitigation of the pollutants causing the other 40 to 45% of warming. These pollutants include black carbon aerosols, tropospheric ozone and its precursor, methane, and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). Because these pollutants have atmospheric lifetimes of days to decades, they are referred to as short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs). Reducing SLCPs is critical for slowing the rate of climate change over the next several decades and for protecting the people and regions most vulnerable to near-term climate impacts.

The Chinese version is here
The French version is here

Why phase down HFCs under the Montreal Protocol?

IGSD – November 2011

Summary
10 reasons to phase down HFCs under the Montreal Protocol.

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Questions & Answers about regulating hydrofluorocarbons under the Montreal Protocol

IGSD – November 2011

Summary
Strengthening the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol‖) to regulate hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) will provide fast-action climate mitigation to complement long-term reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Fast-action to reduce HFC emissions is necessary to avoid tipping points for abrupt, irreversible, and catastrophic climate changes and other ―dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.

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Top 10 Reasons for Addressing Non-CO2 Climate Forcers

IGSD – December 2010

Summary
Top 10 Reasons for Addressing Non-CO2 Climate Forcers, in addition to CO2

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Update on the HFC phase down in mobile air conditioning

IGSD, NRDC & EEW – 2014

Summary
Global automakers moving to HFO-1235YF, except some German automakers waiting for CO2 systems

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Cooling India with Less Warming: The Business Case for Phasing Down HFCs in Room and Vehicle Air Conditioners

NRDC, EEW, Teri & IGSD – 2013

Summary
As living standards rise for tens of millions of Indian people, the enormous expansion in room and vehicle air conditioning could strain the country’s electric grid, require increased fuel import, and magnify the impacts of global warming as a consequence of carbon dioxide and refrigerant greenhouse gas emissions. Choices made in the next few years will shape whether Indian consumers, companies, and government authorities can turn the challenges of the room and vehicle air conditioning expansion into a business advantage and national opportunity while reducing climate change, improving air quality, and making air conditioning more efficient and less costly to operate. This paper explores the business case for Indian air conditioning companies to “leapfrog” and phase down unsustainable technologies based on chemicals with high global warming potential (GWP) called hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and move to a future based on climate-friendly refrigerants and energy-efficient equipment designs.

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The Montreal Protocol and the Green Economy

UNEP –  2012

Summary
Assessing the contributions and co-benefits of a Multilateral Environmental Agreement

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Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone

UNEP & WMO – 2011

Summary
UNEP and WMO’s full 250 page “Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone”

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