IGSD

Institute for Governance & Sustainable Development

Partner Publications

UNEP

Global Linkages: A graphic look at the changing Arctic

UNEP & GRID-Arenda – 2019

Summary

The new report is a set of maps and graphics, accompanied by short narratives to synthesize and illustrate the most critical, connected environmental challenges with Arctic and global relevance and focusing on issues which call for common solutions. The graphics builds on Arctic and global environmental assessments and reflect the dynamic connection between the Arctic and the rest of the planet. It presents both trends and outlooks and provides actionable recommendations focused on policy development and options for solutions. The issues covered by this product reflect the themes of the current Finnish Chairmanship of the Arctic Council – climate change, biodiversity conservation and pollution prevention.

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Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2018

World Meteorological Organization, UNEP, US Department of Commerce, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, European Commission- 2018

Summary

The Assessment documents the advances in scientific understanding of ozone depletion reflecting the thinking of the many international scientific experts who have contributed to its preparation and review. These advances add to the scientific basis for decisions made by the Parties to the Montreal Protocol. It is based on longer observational records, new chemistry-climate model simulations, and new analyses.

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Enforcement Strategies for Combating the Illegal Trade in HCFCs and Methyl Bromide

UNEP- 2013

Summary

Highlights the importance of national enforcement against illegal trade in ensuring reductions in the emission of chemicals that damage both the ozone layer and the global climate system.

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The Montreal Protocol and the Green Economy

UNEP –  2012

Summary

Assessing the contributions and co-benefits of a Multilateral Environmental Agreement.

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Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone

UNEP & WMO – 2011

Summary

The Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone addresses the short-lived cli- mate forcers (SLCFs) that also have an impacton air quality. Its findings on both the state of scientific knowledge and existing policy op- tions to cut emissions come from 50 authors convened by UNEP and WMO. Previous assessments have often studied either the im- pacts on climate from such pollutants or the direct effects of air pollution on human health and ecosystems, but not both in an integrated manner. This report gives a comprehensiveassessment of the multiple benefits of practi- cal measures to reduce emissions of black carbon – a key component of soot – and the gases leading to the formation of tropospheric ozone, especially methane.

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Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Opportunities for Simultaneous Efficiency Improvement and Refrigerant Transition in Air Conditioning

LBNL – 2017

Summary

In October of 2016, nearly 200 Parties agreed to amend the Montreal Protocol in Kigali, Rwanda, to phase-down consumption and production of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) by 2050. Growth in the use of HFCs, including those currently used as refrigerants in air-conditioning systems, is being driven by demand from emerging economies, hot climates, and rising incomes that are also undergoing rapid urbanization and electrification. Air conditioners (ACs), as an energy-intensive end-use technology, are also covered by a growing number of energy efficiency standards, labeling, procurement, incentive, and other supporting efficiency programs. Therefore, improving room AC energy efficiency and transitioning to low-global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants simultaneously presents significant opportunities to deploy energy efficient technology and reduce the energy and emissions impacts of room ACs, while keeping costs low for consumers. This report aims to provide an initial sense of the opportunities to improve efficiency and transition to low-GWP refrigerants by reviewing the HCFC and HFC regulatory framework and energy efficiency standards and labeling programs in 19 economies that account for roughly 65 percent of global room AC demand.

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Benefits of Leapfrogging to Superefficiency and Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants in Room Air Conditioning

LBNL – 2015

Summary

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) emitted from uses such as refrigerants and thermal insulating foam, are now the fastest growing greenhouse gases (GHGs), with global warming potentials (GWP) thousands of times higher than carbon dioxide (CO2). Because of the short lifetime of these molecules in the atmosphere,1 mitigating the amount of these short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) provides a faster path to climate change mitigation than control of CO2 alone. This has led to proposals from Africa, Europe, India, Island States, and North America to amend the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) to phase-down high-GWP HFCs

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International Energy Agency

Market Report Series: Energy Efficiency 2018

IEA- 2018

Summary

Energy Efficiency 2018, the sixth edition in the IEA Market Report Series, is the global tracker of trends and indicators in energy efficiency and an invaluable resource for energy efficiency policy makers and market actors. This year’s report provides a special feature in the form of a new World Energy Outlook Efficient World Scenario, which answers the question: What would happen if policy makers realised all the economically viable potential for energy efficiency that is available with existing technologies? The report also presents a detailed analysis of energy efficiency trends and drivers in the six major emerging economies of Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico and South Africa. Energy Efficiency 2018 presents the most comprehensive analysis of current and future energy efficiency trends ever produced by the International Energy Agency, and its insights offer direct pointers to policy makers as to what policy solutions are available to deliver the economic, environmental and social benefits of energy systems that are as efficient as possible.

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The Future of Cooling: Opportunities for energy- efficient air conditioning

OECD & IEA – 2018

Summary

The International Energy Agency (IEA) is shining a spotlight on some of the blind spots of energy policy – issues that get little attention but are of crucial importance. The growth in global demand for space cooling is such a blind spot: it is one of the most critical yet often overlooked energy issues of our time. If left unchecked, energy demand from air conditioners will more than triple by 2050, equal to China’s electricity demand today. This report highlights the threats associated with rising, unchecked cooling demand. It provides key insights into current and future trends in cooling, and it proposes policy responses to achieve a more sustainable pathway.

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Sustainable Energy for All

Chilling Prospects: Providing Sustainable Cooling for All

SE4All & K-CEP- 2018

Summary

This report is the first to define and quantify the magnitude of the cooling access challenge, including an assessment of countries facing the biggest risks, measured by extreme heat, food losses, and damaged or destroyed vaccines and medicines. The report illustrates the social and economic risks of ignoring the challenge and the enormous economic and business opportunities of a concerted effort to provide sustainable cooling.

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Other

A Cool World – Defining the Energy Conundrum of ‘Cooling for All’

University of Birmingham Energy Institute, Institute for Global Innovation- 2018

Summary

Cooling is finally coming in from the cold. After many years on the side lines of the energy debate, the importance of cooling to modern ways of living for all, but also the damage it causes to the environment and our health, is being recognised. And so it should be sustainable, affordable artificial cooling with minimal global warming or environmental impact is nothing less than critical to societal, environmental and economic sustainability worldwide. This report explores new outcome and needs-driven, integrated, system- level approaches that re-imagine the way we use and deliver cooling. In so doing it seeks to understand the portfolio of cooling needs, the size and location of the multiple thermal, waste and ‘wrong-time’ energy resources available, and then identify the novel energy vectors, thermal stores and cooling technologies appropriate for the societal, climate and infrastructure context. In short, what we call the Cold Economy: transitioning from technology to system.

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Bending the Curve

University of California – 2015

Summary

Over the past half century, California has provided a remarkable example for the world by achieving dramatic reductions in air pollution, while continuing to grow economically. In this report, we propose a set of strategies for combating climate change and growing the economy in California, the nation and the world, while building present-day and intergenerational wealth, and improving the well-being of people and the planet.

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Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

Oak Ridge National Laboratory – 2015

Summary

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for low– global warming potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerant selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

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Short-Lived Promise? The Science and Policy of Cumulative and Short-Lived Climate Pollutants

Oxford Martin School, University of Oxford- 2015

Summary

This policy paper provides a non-technical overview of these issues, and sets out policy recommendations as countries and companies prepare for the 21st Session of the conference of the Parties to the Unfccc, to be held in Paris in December 2015. in doing so, the paper explains how the ‘short-lived’ versus ‘long-lived’ discussion is not really a technical issue at all, but an expression of inter-generational priorities.

Immediate measures to reduce SLCP emissions could provide some climate benefit to the current generation through reduced warming over the next few decades, but would have little impact on peak warming unless CO2 emissions are substantially reduced at the same time. Immediate reductions in CO2 emissions would also deliver a more substantial climate benefit to future generations.

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