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This paper reviews MLF accomplishments, summarizes TEAP assessment of funding required to replenish MLF, and offers analyses of the benefits that could be achieved with more funding.

In an effort to provide insight into six Southeast Asian (SEA) markets at risk of environmental dumping, CLASP and IGSD assessed the RAC markets for Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. The six countries represent 90% of the regional SEA market.

Currently energy efficiency policies in Southeast Asia lag behind the innovation in RAC technology and the policies of surrounding countries. As low-efficiency and high global warming potential refrigerants are banned in markets around the world, SEA is at risk of becoming a dumping ground for obsolete appliances manufactured by multinational companies that are banned in their own domestic markets. Rolling out and enforcing national energy efficiency policies coupled with accompanying measures would halt this trend.

There are well-established international standards for GHG monitoring and reporting, notably those under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This study examines: (i) GHG data monitoring and reporting for mandatory carbon markets based on China’s sector-based reporting standards; (ii) methods and practices related to carbon sequestration measurement; (iii) metrics and measurement standards for current and emerging financial sector climate risk disclosure, and (iv) innovative new monitoring. It begins by discussing the characteristics of data quality.

PxD and IGSD are partnering on an initiative to collaboratively identify opportunities for innovation in climate change mitigation, particularly for the greenhouse gases most problematic in agricultural production, methane, and nitrous oxide, as well as carbon dioxide. This initiative includes four analytical pieces on the opportunities for climate change mitigation by smallholder farmers.

The agriculture and food system sector is a significant emitter of greenhouse gases (GHGs), primarily methane – associated with livestock and rice production – and nitrous oxide – most directly associated with nitrogen fertilizers, animal manure, and biological nitrogen fixation.  There is, however, potential for agriculture to contribute to climate change mitigation. By leveraging the natural role of plants and soils in the cycling of organic carbon, agricultural land can act as a carbon sink through interventions for carbon sequestration like conservation agriculture. Studies estimate a technical potential of soils in global cropland and pasture land to store 2–5 Gt CO2 per year.

PxD and IGSD are partnering on an initiative to collaboratively identify opportunities for innovation in climate change mitigation, particularly for the greenhouse gases most problematic in agricultural production, methane and nitrous oxide, as well as carbon dioxide. This initiative includes four analytical pieces on the opportunities for climate change mitigation by smallholder famers, starting with carbon dioxide sequestration through enhanced rock weathering. Enhanced rock, or silicate, weathering (ERW) is a developing technology which leverages natural mineral weathering to draw carbon from the atmosphere.

The analysis found ERW’s potential for permanent carbon drawdown and agricultural co-benefits makes it an attractive mitigation strategy, particularly in equator and near-equator geographies like the Global South, where there are ideal soil pH, temperature, and moisture conditions for the technology. However, because ERW is a new technology that is still being tested and has yet to be studied in Global South contexts, there remain critical uncertainties around its safety, carbon sequestration potential, probable benefits to farmers, and feasibility. All of these factors must be addressed in order to move the technology forward.

PxD and IGSD are partnering on an initiative to collaboratively identify opportunities for innovation in climate change mitigation, particularly for the greenhouse gases most problematic in agricultural production, methane, and nitrous oxide, as well as carbon dioxide. This initiative includes four analytical pieces on the opportunities for climate change mitigation by smallholder farmers.

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is both an ozone-depleting substance that damages the stratospheric ozone layer and one of the most potent greenhouse gases (GHGs) contributing to global climate change. As with almost all GHG emissions linked to anthropogenic processes, N2O emissions have increased significantly in recent decades. Agriculture is the main driver for these increases,11 with up to 71% of the increase in emissions from the 1980s to 2007-2016 coming from direct agricultural emissions. In particular, scientists have pointed to the use of nitrogen fertilizer as a key reason for the increasing N2 O atmospheric burden. Most smallholder farmers rely on their own judgment or blanket nitrogen fertilizer recommendations, which can miss critical variations in soil and crop nitrogen needs. Offering farmers in the Global South an accessible and user-friendly way to use nitrogen more efficiently will thus not only help reduce the environmental impact of the use of nitrogen fertilizer in agriculture but also improve farmers’ productivity and profits. Addressing the precision nutrient management gap for smallholder farmers in the Global South is a critical priority for achieving both anti-poverty and climate change goals, especially as the use of nitrogen fertilizer in Global South countries rises in coming years to meet increasing global food demands.

This IGSD Background Note summarizes the science supporting the need for fast climate mitigation to slow warming in the near term (2022–2041). It also describes the importance of cutting short-lived climate pollutants and protecting sinks in order to slow self-reinforcing feedbacks and avoid tipping points. It explains why winning a fast mitigation sprint to 2030 is critical for addressing the climate emergency and how the sprint complements the marathon to decarbonize the economy and achieve net-zero emissions.

The IGSD Primer on Cutting Methane provides decision-makers with clarity on the science of methane mitigation and why action is urgently needed; current and emerging mitigation opportunities by sector; national, regional, and international efforts that can inform emergency global action on methane; and financing initiatives to secure support for fast methane reduction. This Methane Primer provides the scientific and policy rationale for decision-makers to achieve the “strong, rapid, and sustained” cuts to methane emissions necessary to slow global warming in the near term and limit the risk of triggering tipping points. The Methane Primer also supports the need for research and development of technologies to remove methane from the atmosphere at scale.

Today, built into each cooling appliance and insulating foam in nearly every household, building, and car in America and across most of the world, there sits a type of fluorinated gas called a hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and/or a hydrofluorocarbon (HFC). When leaked out into the atmosphere, HCFCs cause the depletion of Earth’s ozone layer and both HCFCs and HFCs are extremely potent climate warmers.

There is a huge opportunity for chemical producers, equipment manufacturers, federal and state policymakers, major corporations, and maintenance professionals to come together to prevent as many of these potent chemicals as possible from making it into the atmosphere. This report makes a first attempt at laying out the starting point for an approach, referred to here as Lifecycle Refrigerant Management (LRM). LRM focuses on avoiding and reducing refrigerant leaks, promoting refrigerant recovery, and increasing reclamation rates to mitigate unnecessary refrigerant use and emissions.

This document is the updated edition of the Recommendations for Climate Friendly Refrigerant Management and Procurement authored by the SPLC Climate Friendly Refrigerant Action Team. The Climate Friendly Refrigerant Action Team is dedicated to investigating global regulatory and voluntary programs to avoid and/or reduce emissions from high global warming potential (GWP) HFCs. This document identifies opportunities and specific procurement options 1) to avoid high GWP HFC refrigerants when purchasing new energy efficient refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, and 2) to reduce refrigerant leakage and service emissions. We invite you to read and put this work to use in your own procurement processes, and to offer additional insights and experiences to sharpen and improve the guidance over time.