Low Carbon Development Pathways for Cooling: Leveraging Kigali Amendment Across Residential Applications
Heating and cooling demand for space conditioning and refrigeration accounts for around a fifth of global final energy consumption. Climate change, urbanization, and economic development have tripled electricity demand for cooling alone since the 1990s, with the majority coming from the use of inefficient cooling equipment, which burdens electricity grids, especially during peak hours. It is imperative to address the energy required to provide cooling. The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol addresses these needs by setting ambitious global targets to phase down refrigerants with high global warming potential while improving energy efficiency. Integrating energy efficiency and the refrigerant transition will contribute to economic security, well-being, energy access and security, and sustainability among the G20 countries.
Cities are responsible for over 70 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions and 75 percent of primary energy consumption. By 2050, over two-thirds of the world population will live in cities, resulting in even greater infrastructure needs and increased carbon emissions. Yet, cities largely remain on the sidelines in the design of national and international green transition policies. Cities can combine policy, practice, and participation by leveraging innovation, technology, and partnerships while transforming local governance models. There is a need for the G20 leaders to recognize and support the role of cities in accelerating climate action toward net zero and limiting warming to 1.5 °C. This Policy Brief suggests policy recommendations informed by current trends, Urban20 (U20) engagement group priorities, and previous communications by G20 countries to address the barriers that cities face in implementing effective climate action towards net zero. These recommendations emphasize on themes around empowering cities; building technical, institutional, and financial capacities of cities; facilitating climate finance; and enabling multi-stakeholder participation for achieving integrated urban climate action.