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The Global Methane Assessment shows that human-caused methane emissions can be reduced by up to 45 per cent this decade. Such reductions would avoid nearly 0.3°C of global warming by 2045 and would be consistent with keeping the Paris Climate Agreement’s goal to limit global temperature rise to 1.5 degrees Celsius (1.5˚C) within reach.

The assessment, for the first time, integrates the climate and air pollution costs and benefits from methane mitigation. Because methane is a key ingredient in the formation of ground-level ozone (smog), a powerful climate forcer and dangerous air pollutant, a 45 per cent reduction would prevent 260 000 premature deaths, 775 000 asthma-related hospital visits, 73 billion hours of lost labour from extreme heat, and 25 million tonnes of crop losses annually.

By combining energy efficiency improvements with the transition away from super-polluting refrigerants, the world could avoid cumulative greenhouse gas emissions of up to 210-460 gigatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (GtCO2e) over the next four decades, depending on future rates of decarbonisation. This is roughly equal to 4-8 years of total annual global greenhouse gas emissions, based on 2018 levels.

There are many policy options and approaches to seize these benefits explored here.

The new report is a set of maps and graphics, accompanied by short narratives to synthesize and illustrate the most critical, connected environmental challenges with Arctic and global relevance and focusing on issues which call for common solutions. The graphics builds on Arctic and global environmental assessments and reflect the dynamic connection between the Arctic and the rest of the planet. It presents both trends and outlooks and provides actionable recommendations focused on policy development and options for solutions. The issues covered by this product reflect the themes of the current Finnish Chairmanship of the Arctic Council – climate change, biodiversity conservation and pollution prevention.

In a warming world cooling will be increasingly important for people’s health and productivity, and for achievement of many of the SDGs. However, growing demand for cooling will, if current approaches are continued, contribute significantly to further global warming, both from the emissions of HFCs and other refrigerants, and from the CO2 and black carbon emissions from the mostly fossil fuel-based energy currently powering ACs and other cooling equipment. If robust policies are implemented quickly to promote the use of best available technologies in the cooling sector, the associated emission reductions will make significant contribution to meeting Paris Agreement goals. A combined strategy to improve energy efficiency of cooling equipment while phasing down HFC refrigerants under the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol presents one of the biggest mitigation opportunities available today.

Highlights the importance of national enforcement against illegal trade in ensuring reductions in the emission of chemicals that damage the ozone layer and the climate system.

Assessing the contributions and co-benefits of the Montreal Protocol treaty.

The Integrated Assessment of Black Carbon and Tropospheric Ozone addresses the short-lived cli- mate forcers (SLCFs) that also have an impact on air quality. Its findings on both the state of scientific knowledge and existing policy options to cut emissions come from 50 authors convened by UNEP and WMO. Previous assessments have often studied either the impacts on climate from such pollutants or the direct effects of air pollution on human health and ecosystems, but not both in an integrated manner. This report gives a comprehensive assessment of the multiple benefits of practi- cal measures to reduce emissions of black carbon – a key component of soot – and the gases leading to the formation of tropospheric ozone, especially methane.